Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Last updated: 14 November 2020

Jordan is located at the crossroads of three continents featuring richness of biodiversity with distinguished vegetation associations—bringing together mosaics of stunning landscapes marked by the existence of the Rift Valley.

Biogeographic influences

  • Mediterranean
  • Irano-Turanian
  • Saharo-Arabian
  • Sudanian

Vegetation cover

13 plant associations
Flora & Fauna (terrestrial and marine)
4,000 species
Flora / Vascular Plants
2,622 (≈1% of world flora)
Fauna /Animals
Soft Corals
Hard Corals
Land conservation and management
Designated protected areas account for 5% of the Kingdom’s surface area—representing twice the average area of reserves in the whole Middle East Region—and above the 4% target designated in the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2015-2020). In December 2020, the country designated an area distinguished by its coral reefs and stretching over 7 km along the 27 km Aqaba total shoreline as Aqaba Marine Protected Area.
Total Surface Areas
2,909.6 km2
Upcoming nationally designated (6 sites)
≈1,753.0 km2
4 [Cultural Sites] /1 [Mixed Site]
1 [Royal Botanic Garden/Tell Ar-umman]
Multilateral Environmental Agreements [MEAs]
Jordan is party to 16 conventions and protocols including the MEAs-Biodiversity Cluster and the MEAs-Chemical Cluster—in addition to the Climate Change Convention and associated agreements.
Biodiversity cluster

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Treaty of Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

Convention on the Protection of Marine Pollution by Preventing the Disposal of Waste and other Materials

RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

Chemical cluster

Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol to Protect the Ozone Layer 

Minamata Convention on Mercury

Basel Convention on the Control of Hazardous Wastes and Their Transfer across the Border

Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Approval of the Transfer of Hazardous Chemicals

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s)

International Convention for the Reduction of Pollution from Ships

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change

Paris Agreement on Climate Change

Climate Change and Green Growth
Jordan is far more affected by climate change than it contributes—Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions are negligible when compared to emissions caused by developed countries. The Country’s estimated bulk share of GHGs is 20 million tons/year—representing only around 0.06% of the global total emissions.
Greenhouse Gases Emissions

14% by 2030 

12.5% of which is conditional upon availability of finance and enhanced support from developed countries.

National policy instruments
NDCs Action Plan & Projects
Total 77 measures:
23 mitigation measures
54 adaptation measures
Prioritized 35 projects (2021-2024)
Revised and updated NDCs to be finalized by the first quarter of 2021.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Project

Protocol ratified in 2007

4 Projects registered

Joint Implementation Project
Adaptation Plan Project
2 Projects (1-national, 1-regional)
Climate change policy and instruments
Upcoming version

Endorsed by the Cabinet of Ministers

86 actions [See footnote 2]

Investment projects and environment enabling actions—53 of which contribute to climate action
National Reports
1st, 2nd, 3rd reports submitted to UNFCCC
Upcoming 4th report
National policy instruments and tools
Jordan strives to meet MEAs requirements through the adoption of their strategic objectives and targets, the update of its national action plans and the monitoring and reporting to MEAs secretariats. The Kingdom has been proactive in developing instruments and tools for their implementation and in establishing partnerships in the region on several projects to meet the CBD and the UNCCD requirements.
Strategies and Action Plans

70% of the national targets aligned with Aichi Targets embedded in the NBSAP 2015-2019 were met 

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th National Report 


The Aligned National Action Plan to Combat Desertification in Jordan 2015-2020

National voluntary LDN targets

Environmental laws

Climate Change By-law of 2019, including 14 other by-laws and 22 Regulations and Guidelines enforced by the Jordanian Ministry of Environment.

Resource mobilization
Successful land conservation and management schemes put Jordan on the international conservation map—attracting significant international funding and support extended to both government and major national NGOs. The following figures represent the period 1992-2020.
Trust Fund
93,164,398 US$
Chemicals and Waste
70,182,008 US$
Climate Change
242,651,690 US$
International Waters
34,476,000 US$
Land degradation
Concept Approved/Full Project under revision
44,348,555 US$
30,000,000 US$
Multifocal Areas
439,971,226 US$
Persistent Organic Pollutants
4,006,200 US$

Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)

7,516,020 US$
Other Funds
Green Climate Fund [3 projects]
67,400,000 US$
Readiness Support
960,000 US$
Adaptation Fund
25,500,000 US$
Climate Change Fund
4,000,000 US$
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
1,100,000 US$
Trust Fund
577,671,199 US$
Climate Change
1,646,895,224 US$
Chemicals and Waste
International Waters
158,909,939 US$
Land Degradation
481,394,808 US$
Multifocal Areas
419,774,501 US$
Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)
20,463,559 US$
Participatory schemes
Jordan mobilized participatory approaches through non-governmental and other types of Civil Society Organizations. There are 100 registered environmental NGOs in Jordan, some of the most active are shown below.
Non-Governmental Organizations
The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature (RSCN)

The Royal Botanic Garden (RBG)

Jordan Royal Marine Conservation Society of Jordan (JREDS)

Jordan Environment Society (JES)

Women Communities
Arab Group for the Protection of Nature (APN)

Dibeen for Environmental Development (DED)

1 Aqaba Mountains, Bayer, Qatar, Abu Rukbah, Shubak, Rajel.
2 NGCP presents a Roadmap towards the gradual transition into green growth. It includes 6 priority areas: energy, water, waste, transport, agriculture, and tourism.
3 The GGNAP can support NDC action plan and adaptation plan, and many of them contribute to achieving our sustainable development goals. GGNAP accounts for preserving natural assets; environmental resources and biodiversity, sustainable economic growth, contributing to the social dimension through reducing poverty and unemployment, enhancing resources efficiency, and to climate change adaptation and mitigation.